“Social Justice”, it’s a popular concept not well understood, but readily bandied about. The signature of modern rhetoric is the deployment of terminology that simply cannot fail to
Rain barrels and cisterns have been used for saving drinking water from structure roofs for hundreds of years. In this video Grandpa Pat introduces craftsman Ted Berg who shows, step-by-step,
Baked Barbecue Chicken
(Recipe from Aunt Marie)
2 fryers – cut in quarters
3 medium onions – sliced thinly
Salt and Pepper
Arrange chicken in a single layer – skin-side up – in a roasting pan.
Sprinkle generously with salt and pepper.
Pour in enough hot water to cover bottom of pan – no more.
Add sliced onions – tuck some under the wings and legs.
Bake at 350 degrees for 30 minutes.
Remove from oven and turn chicken pieces over.
Return to oven and bake another 30 minutes.
When fryers have baked for 1 hour, remove from oven and pour off all but ¾
cup of the liquid in the bottom of the pan. Turn fryers skin-side up and
spray barbecue sauce over all.
Return fryers to oven; bake 1
hour longer or until a fork can be inserted easily into the leg part of
each piece. During the last hour of baking, baste frequently with the
sauce in the spray bottle.
Tennessee-style BBQ suace
cider vinegar 2 cups
salt 4 Tbs.
melted butter 1 cup
Tabasco 5 Tbs
Worchestershire 3 Tbs
garlic powder ¼ tsp.
Mix all ingredients together and put in squirt or spray bottle.
Spray/squirt on chicken or pork on the grill.
1 lb. green peppers, seeded, cut into strips
1 1/4 lbs. carrots, cleaned, cut into thin strips
1 med. cauliflower, broken into flowerets
2 c. white distilled vinegar
2 c. water
1/4 c. salt
4 lg. cloves garlic, sliced
4 tsp. dill seed
1 tsp. crushed dried red pepper
Prepare vegetables. Blanch separately green pepper and cauliflower 1 minute and carrots 2 minutes. Drain and rinse in cold water.
Heat mixture of vinegar, water and salt. Pack vegetables lengthwise into jars, filling each jar about 1/3 full of each of the vegetables. Divide the garlic, dill seed and red pepper into 4 equal parts; add 1 part to each jar.
Fill each jar with hot vinegar mixture. Place lids on and seal with ring. Process in boiling water bath 10 minutes. Remove and cool on wire rack or folded towel. Makes 4 pints. This recipe can also be used for pickling just cauliflower.
1 medium head cabbage (red cabbage makes a more colorful slaw)
1 large carrot
1 green pepper
1 small onion
1 teaspoon salt
1 cup vinegar
1/4 cup water
2 cups sugar (we used ¾ cup for better results)
1 teaspoon celery seeds (we liked less seeds use ¼ tsp) 1 teaspoon mustard seeds (we liked less seeds use ¼ tsp)
Shred together vegetables. Add the salt.
Let stand 1 hour. Drain
water from vegetables.
Boil syrup ingredients together for 1 minute, cool.
Add syrup to vegetables.
Pack into quart jars and process in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes, or put into freezer
containers and freeze.
Leftovers may be frozen.
This slaw may be drained before use and mayonnaise added, or used as is.
Elderberry tincture has long been known as the ‘poor man’s medicine chest’ for its usefulness, but especially its efficacy in treating cold and flu symptoms. Long used throughout Europe and the Americas, elderberry has a long and respected history as an herbal remedy. Both Pliny the Elder and Hippocrates mentioned and recommended elderberry as a medicinal herb in their writings.
Elderberry Vodka Tincture
Dried elderberries enough to fill quart-sized jar 1/3 full or fresh berries to fill jar -100 proof vodka, (DO NOT use a lower proof or other liquor. You will NOT get the results you are looking for.)
Directions: Fill quart-sized jar 1/3 full with dried elderberries (or completely full for fresh). ). Fill jar with 100 proof vodka. Place the lid on the jar, label with date, and keep in a cool, dark place. Shake the jar at least twice a day for 10-12 days, (leaving it longer does NOT make it stronger). Strain the mixture using a cheesecloth. Be sure to squeeze all of the liquid out of the berries. Store in an airtight container on the pantry shelf for up to 2 years.
Use: For adults and older children: Administer 1-2 tablespoons daily for prevention and up to 4 times daily at the first show of cold/flu symptoms. May be administered in a cup of hot warm, sweetened to taste.
-1 cup of fresh or 1/2 cup of dried elderberries -3 cups of water -1 cup of honey -2 tablespoons grated ginger (optional as a warming agent but not necessary for effectiveness) -spices such as whole cloves and cinnamon are optional add-ins as well
Directions: Place berries, ginger (if using), and water in a pot. Bring to a boil, reduce heat, and then simmer over low heat for 45 minutes. Smash the berries. Then strain the mixture through a cheesecloth. Add honey. Bottle syrup and store in the refrigerator for up to 3 months.
Use: Child: Administer 1 teaspoon per day for prevention or 1 teaspoon per waking hour at the onset of cold/flu-like symptoms. Adult: Administer on same schedule, however increase dosage to 1 tablespoon.
Note: Not suitable for children under one year of age.
2 C Flour
2 tsp Baking Powder
1/2 tsp Salt
1 C whole Milk
4 Tbsp Vegetable Oil
Mix above ingredients, blend them well and turn out on to a floured surface.
Knead 4 or five times and divide dough into two parts. Roll out one piece
of dough to 1/8″ thick and cut into 1″x1 1/2″ strips.
Place into a large sauce pan that you have place 8 cups of water and 3 chicken bouillon cubes that has been brought to boil and the bouillon cubes have been dissolved.
Cook 1 half of dumplings until just about done and strain and set aside.
Next finish the other half of the dumplings in the same way.
While cooking the dumplings you can prepare the sauce.
3 Tbsp Butter
4 Tbsp Flour
1/4 tsp Salt
1 C Whole Milk
2 Chicken Bouillon Cubes (crumbled)
1/2 tsp sugar
1/2 -3/4 C Dumpling Cooking Liquid (after dumplings have been cooked)
Place butter in medium sauce pan and melt, add salt and flour, stir until
Mix sugar with milk, and add to flour mixture a little at a time and stir constantly with a whisk until thick and smooth. Remove from heat.
Place cooked dumplings in dumpling sauce and add 1/2 cups of cooking liquid
in which the crumbled chicken bouillon cubes have been added and stir gently,
Simmer dumplings until blended on low heat. More cooking liquid may be added
Just like Nana used to make!
BASIC WHITE BREAD
If you can’t bake bread you will not survive!
You can’t stock-up on bread because it is perishable, so you must bake it yourself. For a well balanced survival meal plan you must bake it every week. Imagine breakfast without toast, a grilled cheese sandwich without the bread or a burger without the bun, even simple soups taste better with a slice of bread or dinner roll.
(Total time 3 hours)
Makes one loaf
3 cups All-Purpose Flour, (grind you rown from wheat berries or use a good quality like King Arthur)
1/4 cup Sugar
1/3 cup Oil (or Melted Crisco Shortening)
1 tsp Salt
1 cup 110-120 degree water
1 pkg (1 tsp) “Active Dry Yeast” or “Rapid Rise Yeast”
Proofing, (blooming), the Yeast:
For guaranteed rising results when using “Active Dry Yeast” or “Rapid Rise Dry Yeast” I proof the yeast in warmed water 100-110 degrees checked with a thermometer and combine the sugar and yeast into a small bowl or measuring cup and stir until dissolved, let froth for about 5-10 minutes.
In another bowl combine and whisk together all the dry ingredients.
Then add the bloomed yeast, oil and blend for 2-5 minutes with a stiff handle rubber spatula. Now just blend the ingredients into a ball but do not knead. Should take 1-2 minutes.
Now remove from the bowl and knead aggressively for 1-2 minutes. Place the dough back into the bowl. (This can be as long as overnight)
Punch the dough down, knead for 1-2 minutes and then shape to fit in a greased bread baking pan. Let it rise again in the pan, in a warm place, until about double is size, about 60 minutes.
Now after the dough has risen the second time put it in the oven, middle rack and bakes at 325 degrees for 45-55 minutes or until golden brown.
Cool for 30 minutes and enjoy.
• Oven temperature is critical for success. Use an oven thermometer on the shelf you’re baking on for accurate temperature.
• To prevent the bread sides and bottom from burning or becoming overdone place a pizza stone on the shelf you’re baking on (to deflect the heat rising from below) then place the bread pan on the pizza stone.
• Avoid dead bread: The yeast must be kept warm through out the preparation to give the results you want. Most cases of bread rising failure goes right back to the time you add your ingredients. The flour, sugar and oil must be warm also (room temp) If these items are stored in a refrigerator or a cold pantry they will draw the heat out of the yeast and water. The result is stalled yeast and little on no rising will occur = Dead Bread. The ideal temperature for letting bread dough rise is 80 degrees f. This holds true for all yeast recipes.
“Water, water, everywhere, And all the boards did shrink; Water, water, everywhere, Nor any drop to drink.” -Samuel Taylor Coleridge (born 1772 – died 1834)
The first and most obvious fact is that water is an absolute necessity. Without water, life—animal, plant, or human—cannot exist. Water comprises approximately 75 percent of the human body. Without adequate water, the body ceases to function.
Water is required for the maintenance of life; researchers have investigated the absolute minimum amount of water required for human survival. Regular intake of water is needed to maintain a person’s water balance, as water lost through normal activities must be restored. The minimum water requirement for replacement purposes, for an “average” person, has been estimated to be approximately 1 gallon per day, given average temperate climate conditions.
In addition to drinking requirements, water is traditionally used for sanitation purposes for the disposal of human waste. Effective waste disposal has many health benefits as it serves to control the spread of disease. Humans also have basic hygiene needs for personal washing and bathing, and for food preparation.
Being able to turn on the faucet and get thousands of gallons of fresh, clean water with no effort and for very little cost has spoiled us. What do you do it if stops flowing or your normal supply gets contaminated? If you don’t have water then you’ll die fast. There are several options. You can get a filter or a purification system but in that case you need access to water to filter. You can build a rain catchment system but you need it to rain on a regular basis for that to work. That leaves storage. It’s the easiest system to have in place before a crisis hits. It can be done extremely inexpensively. The most important thing to keep in mind is that you need about 1 gallon per day per person. That is a very small amount and it will take a lot of discipline to go from living off of city water to living off of what you have stored in your garage.
There are several different options for water storage. The first is to think about all of the containers in your home that already store water. The tanks in your toilets have fresh, relatively clean water in them. Your hot water heater has a lot of water in it. Your pipes might even have some water in them if a disaster hits fast. If you have some forewarning you can fill up any buckets, bathtubs, sinks and other containers at the first opportunity. A very good option is a water BOB (search google.com for “water bob”). It’s a large plastic water bladder that fits in your bathtub that you can fill instead of filling the water directly into your tub. That’s a lot of standing water to keep fresh for any period of time. Bathtub floors aren’t the cleanest surfaces, either. If you don’t have a water bob then just make sure that you add some bleach to your bathtub after you fill it up. A drop per gallon is the typical ratio.
Now that you know what you can do if you find out that a disaster is about to hit lets talk about what you can do now while the disaster is still hypothetical. Plastic bottles make great water containers. Any time I finish a 2l bottle of soda I wash it out, fill it up with water and add it to my stock. I do the same with bottles of vegetable oil, juice, etc. Basically anything that’s a clear plastic that had something in it that you either drank or ate should be safe to fill up with water. Just make sure that you add a dab of bleach to it. Glass is great, too, but you don’t see that used very often anymore unless you drink a lot of hard liquor.
Another option is to use water storage containers. You can pick these up at most sporting goods stores or Wal-Mart for less than $10. They generally range from 5-7 gallons. They usually come with a spigot attachment. Some sporting goods stores sell slightly larger ones in the 15 gallon range. You can also get online and order 5 gallon water cans from several online merchants for a reasonable price. Check Sportsmansguide.com often.
The problem with that type of storage is that it’s not efficient. 10 5 gallon jugs takes up a lot of space. If you want to get bigger I’d start by looking at 55 gallon food grade plastic drums. If you have a soda bottling plant nearby you can usually pick these up for about $15 each. You might have to clean them out and since they contained soda syrup before you got your hands on them you might be stuck with water that never quite loses that faint Dr Pepper flavor. Either install a spigot or get a siphon. I’m planning on getting a simple siphon in the near future. I’ll let you all know how it works out. If you’re going to store water in 55 gallon drums make sure and put a wood pallet under it. I’ve heard of leakage problems. It’s probably got something to do with 55 gallons of water pushing down on plastic that’s up against something as hard as concrete over a long period of time. I don’t imagine that the plastic would hold up forever.
Now that we’ve got the cheap solutions out of the way let’s start thinking about where you can spend some money. Unless I lived in the boonies I wouldn’t consider a tank bigger than what I could fit in my garage, a shed or my basement. You’d be very surprised how much water you can fit in a relatively small container, though. The biggest problem that I see with a large water container in the city is that if you actually have to utilize it then it’s probably time to get the hell out of dodge in the first place.
There are plenty of solutions to ensure that you have fresh, clean water through a disaster. Water storage probably won’t get you very far (maybe a few weeks unless you’re really hardcore) but a few weeks is usually all that you’ll need. For the urban survivalist you’ll want to consider more portable options in the event of a catastrophe. If something lasts for a few weeks or more then even living out of a tent in a national forest somewhere will start to look good.
A lot of has been written about “purifying” water and how various methods of “purifying” are best. Before we even consider how to make water safe, perhaps we should consider what makes it unsafe.
Part 1 – The Contaminants
There are two main classifications of contaminants we need to concern ourselves with – organisms (living creatures) and chemicals (which may be organic or inorganic in nature but are not alive).
There are a large number of types of organisms that can exist in the water. The hazards in drinking water are small – very small. I’ll include rough size ranges when describing them. For consistency I’ll give all sizes in microns (a micron is one thousandth of a millimetre or one millionth of a metre. These include:
A virus is a piece of nucleic acid wrapped in a coat of protein. It is not a cell and can only reproduce and grow by infecting a host where it inserts its nucleic acid into host cells. Examples of water borne viruses include Hepatitis and Rotavirus A virus is the smallest of the organic hazards we are discussing – they range in size from 0.3microns to 0.01microns.
Bacteria are single celled organisms with a complete set of nucleic acid (RNA and DNA) and are much larger than viruses (up to 100 times). Over 90% of bacteria are harmless or beneficial to humans but some are dangerous. Examples of dangerous bacteria include Cholera and TyphoidBacteria measure 0.5microns to 5 microns
Protozoa are single celled creatures. Larger and more complex than bacteria, they are commonly found in both water and soil. They are generally invisible to the naked eye – they range in size from ten microns to half a millimetre (or 500 microns) Some protozoa have the ability to form cysts.
A cyst is a hard walled form of a micro-organism such as Giardia or Cryptospyridium, These cysts can survive in water or fecal matter for a long time and in conditions that the protozoa would not. Chlorine and Iodine for example may not reliably kill cryptospyridium cysts
Many chemicals can be found in water – these include metals (lead, arsenic, mercury), nitrates / nitrites and many more. Their presence can be natural or the result of human activity. Mining can cause the presence of metals in the water supply (particularly in less regulated parts of the world), agricultural run off of fertilisers and pesticides are another common cause of chemical pollution. Chemical contaminants have to be separated from the water to render it safe since they cannot be killed as organisms can.
Part 2 – The Treatments
Heat / Boiling
Heating water to a high enough temperature for a long enough time will kill all dangerous organisms. Advice from reputable sources varies but consensus seems to suggest that raising water to 100C will have killed all bacteria and viruses. Cysts are a little tougher and advice is to maintain 100 degrees C for one minute to be safe. The amount of “boil time” advised by “authorities” varies. There are two reasons for this: Altitude (and consequential air pressure) alters the boiling point of water. To take an extreme example, the pressure at the summit of Everest is about a third of sea level air pressure. At this altitude, water boils around 70C. Since 82C is the temperature at which bacteria are instantly killed, the problem is obvious. US EPA advice is that cysts which are probably the toughest of the organisms will be killed by ten minutes of exposure to water at 70C.
This is mucky murky water to you and me. Many micro organisms are found in soil. If soil particles are floating in water, they can insulate the organisms they contain from the rise in temperature for a period of time. The murkier the water, the longer the boil time should be sustained. Better yet is to use a coarse filter to remove larger soil particles.
Clear water brought to a rolling boil at low altitude will be safe from organisms. The higher the altitude and the murkier the water, the longer a boil should be maintained (to a maximum of 15 minutes for dirty water whilst standing on the summit of Everest).
There are really three subsets of filtration – I would term them “coarse”, “fine” and “ultra fine”. Coarse filtration.
Coarse filtration will not remove either organic or chemical hazards since the barrier apertures are large enough to allow even protozoa to pass through. What coarse filtration will do however is screen out all but the finest of the particulates that cause turbidity. This will render boiling and chemical sterilisation far more effective and also hugely improve the palatability of water. The most common form of coarse filtration is the Milbank bag – a tightly woven canvas bag with a design optimised for coarse filtration.
Fine filtration will certainly remove protozoa and cysts and the better quality filters will also remove bacteria. To look out a quality fine filter, look for “absolute” filtration of 1 micron or less. The most common form of fine filtration is a ceramic filter (often used in combination with other approached described later). A high quality ceramic filter will last indefinitely (although other combined products will not). It is important to note that fine filters, because they can trap bacteria, can become a breeding ground and source of contaminants. In order to alleviate this some form of secondary barrier is often included in the fine filter – often silver is used to prevent the bacteria surviving. A ceramic filter will also form a barrier to some metals and organic matter (but by no means all).
Ultra Fine Filtration
There are portable filters available that can filter out viruses. These are relatively new to the market and are still relatively expensive. I addition there is the process known as reverse osmosis. This is a very fine filter which water molecules are forced through with a pressure of 40 – 80 psi. Reverse osmosis can remove not only viruses but also salts (e.g. producing fresh water from salt water) and metal salts
There are a variety of chemicals that will kill micro organisms – perhaps the most common are Iodine and Chlorine based products. ChlorineChlorine based products attack the cell walls of organisms and then oxidise the intra cellular madder rendering harmless.
The cheapest method of adding chlorine to water is to use plain, unscented household bleach (5% sodium hypochlorite). Add one drop (0.05ml) per litre – two if the water is cloudy and leave for at least 30 minutes. This works best in warmer water and may not be effective against protozoa and cysts. Household bleach is not the best solution for travelling as persistent shaking can result in loss of chlorine activity.
Tablets are far more convenient to carry, less subject to degradation by motion than household bleach they are a slightly different chemical (Sodium dichloroisocyanurate). The most common form uses 1 tablet per litre (although I would use two in cloudy (turbid) water). Water should be left for 10 minutes after the tablet has been added. Puritabs (the most common type) claim effectiveness against Giardia. Note that acid pH water can reduce the efficacy of chlorine based products as an agent. IodineIodine is considered slightly more effective than chlorine based chemical approaches against protozoa and cysts, however even iodine based preparations did remove more than 90% of cysts in some tests unless left for 24 hours. There are some health concerns over prolonged use of iodine (with the potential to lead to goitre). It is wise for young children, pregnant people and those with iodine allergy (or shellfish allergy which can be an indicator) to avoid the use of iodine-based preparations. Some find the taste of iodine preparations unpleasant and use a “neutraliser” to remove the taste. It should be noted that adding the neutraliser renders the iodine ineffective so it should only be added after the correct waiting period (30 minutes to 1 hour if in doubt). It is worth mentioning that the “neutraliser” is soluble ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). Soluble vitamin C from the pharmacy will work just as well (and cost less). The risk of using a neutraliser is that any left in your water bottle will reduce the efficacy next time iodine is used.
Tincture of Iodine
Tincture of Iodine (Alcoholic Iodine Solution BP) – this is readily available from pharmacies and contains (generally) 2% iodine. Suggested doses vary, but to deactivate cycts, five drops per litre and a half to one hour wait period allowed at normal temperatures (more if cold) Note that iodine should not be stored in plastic but in glass bottles with paper lined Bakelite caps. Iodine can leach in plastic bottles. This clearly carries some risk of breakage and iodine is messy stuff!
Iodine based tablets
The most common type of these is “Potable Aqua” – they are tablet form Tetraglycine hydroperiodide. Each tablet contains 4mg of iodine. They are slow to dissolve and should be used up when the bottle has been opened. Iodine crystals It is possible to make your own iodine solution by the Kahn–Visscher method. This is done by putting 5g of iodine in a glass jar (about 30ml) with a paper lined Bakelite lid. The jar is filled with water. The saturated solution will disinfect about 2 litres of water but care must be taken not to draw up any crystals. A commercial version of this is Polar Pur.
Its worth noting that when harmful micro organisms are exposed to the ultraviolet light, their RNA /DNA is disrupted by absorbing the UV this makes the organism sterile and safe. UV is found commonly in “inline” systems for water drawn from wells and bore holes. It also has more “portable” variants – notably the “steri pen” battery powered UV water treatment system. Even leaving water in a clear bottle in strong sunlight will have a beneficial effect id done for a long enough period and in strong enough light. It should be noted though that any “cloudiness” in the water will render UV treatment ineffective so it is best combined with filtration.
One very useful item in water purification is activated charcoal. Activated charcoal is not the stuff from your barbecue (although its chemically similar). It is charcoal that has been altered by a special manufacturing techniques to make it highly porous. So porous in fact that a gram of activated charcoal has a surface area of up to 2,000 square metres. Activated carbon adsorbs (chemically bonds with) certain chemicals as they pass through it thereby trapping them and removing them from the water. This is not true of all chemicals – some are trapped: Mercury, organic arsenic complexes, 245 T (dioxin) and chlorine. Its worth noting that chlorine is adsorbed – your carbon filter will remove the chemical taste from water but also prevent it being efficacious – always filter first and then chemically treat! Its worth noting that activated charcoal can trap and become a breeding ground for bacteria. Some contain other materials (such as silver) to inhibit such bacterial growth however it is a good idea to regularly flush your carbon filter with clean decontaminated water to remove bacteria. Activated charcoal is used in two forms – granular and block. Block both filters and adsorbs and is often seen as the superior product.
Resin filters act on an ion exchange principle – they remove cations (e.g. lead and mercury) and anions (e.g. chlorides) with harmless ions such as hydroxyl (OH). Brita filters are a common example of ion exchange filters. Quality field use filters often combine activated charcoal with resin filters.
Distillation is often thought to render all water safe. In effect water is heated to the point of evaporation and the steam gathered and condensed. The heating action will kill all micro organisms and many chemicals (with a lower boiling point than water) will be left behind and not come across in the distillate. It is a fuel heavy and mechanism to produce large quantities of fresh water although a variety of techniques (including the “solar still” and “connected bottles” will produce small quantities in extremis). It is worth noting that some chemicals (e.g. methanol) have a lower boiling point than water and can come across in distillation.
Part 3 – Practical Solutions
Since most common diseases in a survival situation are waterborne, polluted drinking water must be rigorously avoided.
Never ever take the slightest unnecessary risk with questionable water. Anyone can generally get along a while longer without a drink. One drop of contaminated water can so sicken that if nothing worse occurs, people will become too weak to travel.
MUDDY WATERS CLEANING METHODS
If water is muddy, floating clay particles can be settled out by adding a pinch of alum. This, however, requires at least 12 hours waiting and lots of wood!
Polluted or dirty water can be filtered by straining through closely woven garments such as a felt hat or a pair of thick drill trousers. This will remove sediments only, not purify.
TO CLEAN and PURIFY MUDDY WATER
Step 1 Let it rest during 12 hours.
Step 2 Let it circulate inside a bamboo stick or other tube measuring 1 yard, filled with sand and the end packed with grass.
Step 3 Then pour water through a cloth filled with sand which filters the mud.
Step 4 Boil that water afterward for a minimum of 10 minutes.
TO MAKE A FILTER
Water can be cleared by filtration although this process will neither affect any dissolved minerals nor ensure purity.
Water is polluted by animal and mineral matter rather than by discoloring vegetable substances such as grass roots and dead leaves.
The first two can not be removed with any sureness by ordinary filtering. This filter is to clear water by straining it through solid material.
A “wild” filter can be made without too much trouble particularly in sandy areas by scooping a hole a few feet from the source of supply and letting the water seep into it.
HOT STONES METHOD
Polluted water can be sterilized by adding hot stones to the water in the filter. The water will soon boil becoming sterile and safe drink.
In areas where there is the likelihood of water being unsanitary (near cities or villages), it is always safer to boil before drinking or add a pinch of chloride of lime.
Water which is very muddy, dirty or stagnant can be clarified through a good filter made from a pair of drill trousers with one leg turned inside out and put inside the other leg.
The cuff is tied and the upper part held open by 3 stakes driven well into the ground. Fill with the dirty water and then drop in the hot stones.
The water will filter through and MUST be caught by a container and poured pack until the dirt has been filtered. Boil the water at least 10 minutes. Remember, just moistening your lips with polluted water can make you sick for days; it can even kill you.
SIMPLE CHEMICAL PURIFICATION
One can buy the chemicals at most sporting goods and drug stores. Since their purifying action depends upon the release of chlorine gas, the tablets should be fresh and the container kept tightly closed, its contents dry.
NO PURIFICATION OF WATER BY CHEMICAL MEANS IS AS SAFE AS BOILING.
Two tabs of Iodine will ordinarily make a quart of water safe for human consumption in 1/2 hour.
If the water is muddy or its integrity seems particularly questionable, it is good insurance to double at least the amount of Halazone and standing time to be sure.
Care must be taken with chemical purifiers to disinfect all points of contact with the container, so that the sterilized water will not be easily reinfected.
If a jar or canteen is being used together with Iodine, replace the cover loosely and wait 30 minutes so the tablets can dissolve. Then shake the contents thoroughly, allowing some of the water to spill out over the top and lips of the holder. Tighten the cover and leave it that way for the time required before using any of the water.
CHLORIDE OF LIME
Chlorine in some form is regarded as the most dependable disinfectant for drinking water. When introduced in proper quantities, it destroys any existing organisms. For as long as enough remains in the water, it prevents recurring contamination. It is better to err moderately on the side of over-dosage than not enough.
EMERGENCY CHLORINATING DONE IN 3 STEPS
1) Dissolve one heaping tablespoon of chloride of lime in 8 quarts of water.
2) Add one part of this solution to 100 parts of the water to be disinfected.
3) Wait at least 30 minutes before using. The stock solution must be kept tightly corked in a cool, dark place and even then, it should be frequently renewed.
Tincture of iodine can be used as an emergency purifier. A drop of this fresh antiseptic, mixed thoroughly with one quart of water in the same manner as the old Halazone pills, will generally make the water fit to drink in 30 minutes.
Both the amount and time may be doubled if this precaution seems warranted.
IODINE WATER PURIFICATION TABLETS
Chlorine-releasing compound can not be relied upon in semi-tropical and tropical areas.
Water in those regions must be sterilized either by boiling or by iodine water purification tablets containing the active ingredient Tetraglycine Hydroperiodine, These measures have been adopted as standard by the armed services of the USA.
These tablets have been proved effective against all the common water-borne bacteria. Added to water each tablet frees 8 milligrams of iodine which act as a water purification factor.
One tablet will purify one quart of water. These tablets too must be kept dry. The bottle must be recapped tightly after opening.
Step 1 Add one tablet to a quart of water in container with cap.
Step 2 Wait 3 minutes.
Step 3 Shake water thoroughly, allowing a little water to leak out and disinfect the screw threads before tightening the cap.
Step 4 Wait 10 minutes before drinking or adding beverage powders and if water is very cold, wait 20 minutes.
Step 5 If water contains decaying vegetation or is murky and discolored, use 2 tablets for every one quart.
Step 6 Make certain that the iodine disinfects any part of the container which will come in contact with your lips.
Bleach for water purification
First let water stand until particles settle. Pour the clear water into an uncontaminated container and add Regular per instructions below.* Mix well. Wait 30 min. Water should have a slight bleach odor. If not, repeat dose. Wait 15 min. Sniff again. Keep an eyedropper taped to your emergency bottle of Clorox Bleach, since purifying small amounts of water requires only a few drops. See chart* suggestions for storage bottle replacement.
Don’t pour purified water into contaminated containers. To sanitize water jugs first, see instructions**.
Without water and electricity, even everyday tasks are tough. In lieu of steaming hot water, sanitize dishes with a little Bleach. Just follow the directions below to keep dishes clean.
*Ratio of Bleach to Water for Purification
2 drops of Regular Bleach per quart of water
8 drops of Regular Bleach per gallon of water
1/2 teaspoon Regular Bleach per five gallons of water
If water is cloudy, double the recommended dosages of Bleach.
(Only useregular Bleach (not Fresh Scent or Lemon Fresh). To insure that Bleach is at its full strength, replace your storage bottle every three months.)
**(Bleach Sanitizing Solution)
Mix 1 tablespoon Regular Bleach with one gallon of water. Always wash and rinse items first, then let each item soak in Bleach Sanitizing Solution for 2 minutes. Drain and air dry.
You can check either at sportsmansguide.com or EBay.com to check for water filers. One good portable choice is the “Steripen” filter.
I received the following in an email from user “Grandpa Ken” and I thought it would be of interest to our users here who hunt. This is used with permission.
I just learned a new method for skinning Deer that I think would work on all large animals. The golf ball method: Skin the hide back at the neck, remove the front hoofs at the joint and slit the hide on the front legs down to the joint. Place a golf ball under the hide where you skinned the neck and tie the loose hide tight around the ball with some strong nylon rope. Lay the animal down on clean plastic and tie the head to something strong like a car and tie the rope to your vehicle and pull. Remove the hind hoofs at the joints and remove the head and your done in 1/3 the time.
Hi. I am Grandpa Pat, the owner of this site.
Welcome to Homespun Wisdom a site dedicated to the the old time values of “use it up; wear it out; make it over or do without” This is a site dedicated to teaching, learning and sharing the skills that our grandparents used to get through tough times in the past. They will serve us well to get through tough times now and in the future.
Watch for the upcoming videos of Homespun Wisdom including ”How to home can meats and produce”, currently in production and due out shortly after the New Year.
I believe that our society has lost its’ way.
We have become dependent upon handouts from the government; junk food full of chemicals and “entertainment” that should make decent folks want to vomit.
It wasn’t always this way. Not too long ago, our grandparents and their forebearers knew how to grow things; how to make things; how to preserve the harvest. They knew how to not only survive, but to thrive, through good times and lean times.
There was a time when all folks knew these skills and tricks, but over the past 50 years or so, many skills and much of the knowledge that was commonplace became rare and in some cases was lost.
This Blog/Vlog will be an attempt to provide a resource where those who are interested in becoming more self-reliant and self-sufficient can find some answers, (and, perhaps, share some of their own knowledge).
If you come here with a sincere desire to learn; teach; exchange ideas and keep the old skills alive, you will be welcomed with open arms.
If you come here looking to argue politics; religion; if you come here to spam or in any other way disrespect this site and the members of it, you will be banned.
I will be the judge of what is acceptable and what is not acceptable. You might say; “That’s not fair”, and you would be right… it’s not. My house, my rules.
Deal with it.
For those of us who have followed this story a chapter at a time on another website, we are excited to finally see this in Kindle and soon to be in paperback and hardcover.
This is a story of a man who against all odds, makes a epic journey to get home to his wife and kids. This story has it all: struggle of the common man in uncommon situations. Start with a CME(coronal mass ejection), a corrupt governmental agency and rogue members of the military doing their bidding and taking advantage of this event. A complete collapse of the electrical grid, fried electronic devices turning the clock back on us to the 1800′s. But there is hope :members of the military and the common man who believe in the Constution of the United States and are duty bound to uphold and defend it against those trying to create a “new world order”.
What is a Bug-Out-Bag and why do I need one?
There has been quite a bit of conversation in the preparedness community regarding having a “Bug-Out-Bag” or a “G-O-O-D” bag, (Get out of Dodge), but exactly what is it and why would you need one?
For folks living in a city or suburban setting, there are four main reasons to have a 72 hour kit immediately available;
• Natural Disasters: hurricane, tornado, earthquake, flooding, etc.
•Technological Disasters: nuclear meltdown, dam failure, power grid or utility failure(black-outs)
•Pandemic: influenza, disease outbreak
•Terrorism / Invasion: biological threats, dirty nukes, nuclear war, bombs, terroristattacks
Disaters don’t discriminate. Where you live, how much you make, what you drive, how educated you are doesn’t mean a thing in times of disaster. Mother Nature just doesn’t care and the fecal material that encounters the air oscellation device splatters upon the just and unjust equally.
The city and suburban dweller faces challenges that are not a concern to his/her country cousin.
1. Evacuation routes: Cities become virtually impossible to evacuate during large scale disasters. Mass exodus will leave roads virtually impassible. So you may end up having to stay put.
2. Access to resources such as water, food, medicine and fuel: Large numbers of people congested into small areas will deplete available resources in a matter of hours. And the majority of people don’t have food and water storage in their homes.
3. Sanitation: Especially in a “Grid Down” scenario without working water, sewers and trash services, sanitation (and the associated risks) will become a major concern.
4. Rioting, Looting, Armed Violence: Desperation and lack of order bring out the worst in some people. Violent crimes will sky-rocket. This is the ugliest side of any disaster.
WHAT YOU NEED
If you’re forced out of your home and need to survive on your own for at least 72 hours, Remember the Core 4 Basic Human Survival Needs: Shelter, Water, Fire and Food – and to make sure your bag covers them all.
The standard Bug Out Bag Supply Categories are:
•Water and Hydration
•Food and Food Preparation
•Shelter and Bedding
•Protection and Self Defense
There are many items that make up the supply list for these categories, and below are several items that have a special and meaningful place in every Urban Bug Out Bag:
• Shelter: a light weight tarp or poncho shelter, a light-weight sleeping bag
• Water and a means by which to purify more if necessary
• Fire: fire starting tools, don’t rely on lighters or matches
• Food: light-weight, eat-on-the-go items such as power bars, a cook set, a mini stove
• First aid kit with sanitation wipes, rubber gloves, garbage bags, N95 Dust Masks and
waterless hand sanitizer
• Tools: prybar, lock picking set, premium multi-tool, fixed blade knife
• Self defense: pepper spray, handgun (and the practice/experience to use it effectively and safely) This applies to ALL cities – whether you are legally allowed to have one or not.
• Lighting: flashlights, and a headlamp
• Misc supplies such as a map & compass, paracord, small emergency radio, extra cell phone battery, bandanna, detailed area map marked with at least 3 evacuation routes
All should fit into a single backpack that you can grab fast and strap on quickly.
The problem here is, that in the case of an emergency, you will most likely be at work somewhere away from home and unlikely to have your full 72 hour bag available in your desk at the office. It is for this reason that you should also consider a “Get Home Bag” which is a “down-sized” version of your B.O.B. It is designed to be smaller and with just enough supplies to get you home safely and away from “Ground Zero”.
Your get home bag should include;
• Shelter: a light weight tarp or poncho shelter, light-weight sleeping bag, adequate ‘get-home’ outfit and shoes that are weather appropriate
• Water: 1 liter of water and a means by which to purify more if necessary
• Fire: fire starting tools
• Food: light-weight eat-on-the-go items such as power bars – No extensive cook set or stove in this one
• Self-Defense: Hand gun (preferably) and pepper spray
• First aid kit with basic first aid gear including N95 Face Mask
• Hygiene kit with sanitation items such as disinfecting wipes, toilet paper, hand sanitizer
• Tools including fixed blade knife, multi-tool, small pry-bar
• Lighting – headlamp
• Misc supplies such as a map and compass, paracord, small emergency radio, extra cell phone battery, bandanna
Having Bug-Out bags at the ready isn’t about becoming a crazy survivalist in the woods or having a bunker mentality. It’s about being prepared when disaster strikes.
People don’t think about it until it’s way too late. The general mentality is ‘it’ll never happen to me, those things happen to someone else.’ But it’s not a matter of ‘if’ it’s a matter of ‘when’.
So grab that extra backpack you’ve got lying around, and start packing.